Ars Technica reports that security researcher Rob Graham of Errata Security, after analyzing nearly 23, 000 Tor connections through an exit node that Graham controls, believes that the encryption used by a majority of Tor users could be vulnerable to NSA decryption: "About 76 percent of the 22, 920 co.

Actually, DNSSEC is essentially signing of records to prevent spoofing of them because DNS is a non-secure protocol, that is, it actually travels over UDP, which is one of the topics this week. We're going to talk about ICMP and UDP as the first two of the Internet protocols that we discover. And DNS is carried by UDP, which unlike HTTPS, which we also often talk about can be protected by SSL, also known as TLS security, there is no similar security for DNS. So it's very possible for bad guys to perform man-in-the-middle attacks on DNS, altering the DNS records as they're going out or back and forth to a client that's making a query. So DNSSEC is a means of adding that missing security to DNS. So it's different from the NAPTR records. And the good news is it has been around for a long time. And this stuff is just slow to get adopted. When you look at when these various standards are created, it's just inertia on the Internet. Well, I mean, and another example of that is IPv4 versus IPv6.

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And it's actually - it's got both designations. And that's actually sort of a play on the fact that it is in fact unreliable.

The following options set operating system resource limits for the name server process. Some operating systems don't support some or any of the limits. On such systems, a warning will be issued if the unsupported limit is used.


This option is only meaningful if the forwarders list is not empty. A value of first, the default, causes the server to query the forwarders first — and if that doesn't answer the question, the server will then look for the answer itself. If only is specified, the server will only query the forwarders.

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The update-policy clause is new in BIND 9 and allows more fine-grained control over what updates are allowed. A set of rules is specified, where each rule either grants or denies permissions for one or more names to be updated by one or more identities. If the dynamic update request message is signed (that is, it includes either a TSIG or SIG(0) record), the identity of the signer can be determined.


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Responses sent to queries from the local host will favor any of the directly connected networks. Responses sent to queries from any other hosts on a directly connected network will prefer addresses on that same network. Responses to other queries will not be sorted.

If yes (the default), DNS NOTIFY messages are sent when a zone the server is authoritative for changes, see the section called “Notify”. The messages are sent to the servers listed in the zone's NS records (except the master server identified in the SOA MNAME field), and to any servers listed in the also-notify option.


The initial set of root name servers is specified using a "hint zone". When the server starts up, it uses the root hints to find a root name server and get the most recent list of root name servers. If no hint zone is specified for class IN, the server uses a compiled-in default set of root servers hints. Classes other than IN have no built-in defaults hints.

The reason it's perhaps more important than just, oh, they hacked Twitter, which who cares, is that the President uses this, and many other leaders use this as a messaging system to tell the world what they're up to. It's terrifying to think that any of these accounts could have been compromised. And it was obvious when it started that it wasn't a password hack or your average everyday hack because accounts like Bill Gates's and Joe Biden's and Barack Obama's, all of which were hacked, almost certainly have higher levels of security on them.


VPNmentor's research team, led by Noam Roten, discovered the database containing a staggering one billion database entries associated with approximately 20 million users. So a little bit of division, an average of 50 log entries per user, despite the fact that each of the VPN services advertises, as I said, they are no-log VPNs.

And then aside from that there were nine other important fixes, six of which potentially had a high exploitability rating, the way Microsoft now rates these things. There was some remote code execution in the data access components. There was a similar remote code execution in Visio. So if you had Visio installed, and someone sent you a maliciously crafted Visio file, and you opened it, it could run code on your machine and so forth.


DNS - After the Patch - Steve Gibson

The key statement can occur at the top level of the configuration file or inside a view statement. Keys defined in top-level key statements can be used in all views. Keys intended for use in a controls statement (see the section called “controls Statement Definition and Usage”) must be defined at the top level.

If print-category is requested, then the category of the message will be logged as well. Finally, if print-severity is on, then the severity level of the message will be logged. The print- options may be used in any combination, and will always be printed in the following order: time, category, severity.


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The second is (roughly) 1500 bytes. This is essentially how much you’re able to move over IP (and thus UDP) itself before your packet gets fragmented — generally immediately, because it can’t even get past the local Ethernet card.

Steve: Yeah, I do look at the day when it's like, oh. I mean, when I hear Paul and Mary Jo saying, you know how there are these systems that aren't yet qualified to run Windows 10 2004? And Mary Jo says, "That's a good thing.


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A stub zone is similar to a slave zone, except that it replicates only the NS records of a master zone instead of the entire zone. Stub zones are not a standard part of the DNS; they are a feature specific to the BIND implementation.

Hesiod, an information service developed by MIT's Project Athena. It is used to share information about various systems databases, such as users, groups, printers and so on.


Named has some built-in empty zones (SOA and NS records only). These are for zones that should normally be answered locally and which queries should not be sent to the Internet's root servers. The official servers which cover these namespaces return NXDOMAIN responses to these queries. In particular, these cover the reverse namespace for addresses from RFC 1918 and RFC 3330. They also include the reverse namespace for IPv6 local address (locally assigned), IPv6 link local addresses, the IPv6 loopback address and the IPv6 unknown addresss.

Specify hierarchies which must be or may not be secure (signed and validated). If yes, then named will only accept answers if they are secure. If no, then normal dnssec (this hyperlink) validation applies allowing for insecure answers to be accepted. The specified domain must be under a trusted-key or dnssec-lookaside must be active.


By pointing the legacy application at port 2323 on the localhost, all connections to that port will be forwarded over the encrypted tunnel to port 23 on the remote host. This mode of forwarding can become troublesome when attempting to secure communications across the Internet. In this case, you want to connect to an “SSH Concentrator” that will forward connections along to internal hosts (see Figure 6/16).

Methods are disclosed for establishing a path for data transmissions in a system having a plurality of possible paths by creating a configuration database and establishing internal connection paths based upon a configuration policy and the configuration database. Tonight Slashback brings you updates (below) on the video card ATi isn't really putting out, home-brewed electronic multi-room temperature control, NPR's linking policy, and more. Of course, adding entropy in the source port makes it harder, but that's not a reason to do so by itself. Restrictions: You must have execute (*X) authority to the directories in the path of the entropy source file. Having been cracked, AES has taken over as the symmetric encryption standard.


Second, there’s a desire to avoid DNS packets that are too big to fit into UDP frames. UDP, for User Datagram Protocol, is basically a thin application based wrapper around IP itself. There’s no reliability and few features around it — it’s little more than “here’s the app I want to talk to, and here’s a checksum for what I was trying to say” (and the latter is optional). When using UDP, there are two size points to be concerned with.

In the following example, any queries received from any of the addresses of the host itself will get responses preferring addresses on any of the locally connected networks. Next most preferred are addresses on the 192/168/1/24 network, and after that either the 192/168/2/24 or 192/168/3/24 network with no preference shown between these two networks. Queries received from a host on the 192/168/1/24 network will prefer other addresses on that network to the 192/168/2/24 and 192/168/3/24 networks. Queries received from a host on the 192/168/4/24 or the 192/168/5/24 network will only prefer other addresses on their directly connected networks.


This is typically achieved from C code using the getaddrinfo function, which performs the translation and returns the information in a suitable data structure for subsequent connections. This function is used widely in applications and services, including performing some checks when incoming requests are made (such as mail servers using forward lookups to check for invalid hostname combinations). It may also be triggered by advertising networks injecting in images loaded from hostile servers, which can be used to transparently trigger an attack. It's a good job we all use AdBlockers, isn't it?

So some require, like, between eight and 16. So you'd have to drop a word or two or something. So really, if you end up with a website that has a ridiculously small or a worrisomely small maximum password length, then you're really forced to expand the size of the character set.


A side-channel attack typically works based on information gained from the implementation of a computer system, rather than exploiting a weakness in the software. Often, such attacks leverage timing information, power consumption, electromagnetic leaks, and acoustic signals as a source of data leakage.

It is imperative that private DNSSEC signing keys are kept secure. By default, dnsec-keygen uses /dev/random - the generation is slow, so much more in less busy systems. I'm using dynamic DNS. I'm guessing he's probably bound by non-disclosure agreements. I have a question regarding the first signature created over a zone that already exists.


The number is limited to 0 through 65535, with values below 1024 typically restricted to use by processes running as root. In some cases, an asterisk (`*') character can be used as a placeholder to select a random high-numbered port.

The stderr destination clause directs the channel to the server's standard error stream. This is intended for use when the server is running as a foreground process, for example when debugging a configuration.


RRs are represented in binary form in the packets of the DNS protocol, and are usually represented in highly encoded form when stored in a name server or resolver. In the examples provided in RFC 1034, a style similar to that used in master files was employed in order to show the contents of RRs. In this format, most RRs are shown on a single line, although continuation lines are possible using parentheses.

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One method that can be used to determine whether a given resource record is cached on a server, is to send the server a non-recursive request for the resource record. If the record is cached, the server will return an answer to the query. Otherwise, the server will not return an answer, but will provide an authority.


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Record-Type—There are many record types, usually indicated by a short abbreviation, such as A for address and NS for name server. The types fall into four categories: zone, basic, security, and optional. A list of the more common record types appears in Table 19/2.

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But it also includes the IP for that fastly.net subdomain. In this case the response is valid, but what if a malicious server returned a CNAME pointing to, for example, google.com and provided a bogus A record as well? The server must decide if it should treat the A record as a valid answer for this specific query, and also whether to cache it for future clients.


Avoid-v4-udp-ports and avoid-v6-udp-ports specify a list of IPv4 and IPv6 UDP ports that will not be used as system assigned source ports for UDP sockets. These lists prevent named from choosing as its random source port a port that is blocked by your firewall. If a query went out with such a source port, the answer would not get by the firewall and the name server would have to query again.

The DNS protocol authorizes multiple queries and answers in the same packet. The Eugene Kashpureff’s attack uses this feature to add specific records in the answer of a legitimate query in order to populate the cache of recursive DNS servers. This attack is really easy to perform. The attacker just needs to own a DNS server on a domain and propose some content requiring readers to perform a query on it. If the DNS recursive server is not verifying answers and the query is matching, the cache is populated and spoofing can occur.


The size option for files is used to limit log growth. If the file ever exceeds the size, then named will stop writing to the file unless it has a versions option associated with it. If backup versions are kept, the files are rolled as described above and a new one begun. If there is no versions option, no more data will be written to the log until some out-of-band mechanism removes or truncates the log to less than the maximum size. The default behavior is not to limit the size of the file.

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The Ethereal capture in Figure 23/5 shows the utter simplicity of the DNS message exchanges. There’s even a nice log of these messages, as shown in Figure 23/6 (it also tracks DHCP leases when dynamic DNS is used).


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Check-names applies to the owner names of A, AAAA and MX records. It also applies to the domain names in the RDATA of NS, SOA and MX records.

This option is used to check for non-terminal wildcards. The use of non-terminal wildcards is almost always as a result of a failure to understand the wildcard matching algorithm (RFC 1034). This option affects master zones. The default (yes) is to check for non-terminal wildcards and issue a warning.


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The server will listen on all interfaces allowed by the address match list. If a port is not specified, port 53 will be used.

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Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to dnssec-keygen -K directory Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written -k Deprecated in favor of -T KEY -p protocol Sets the protocol value for the generated key. Entropy - A difficult term to define, usually meaning randomness. Based on patch from Jakub Jelen. Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest. IT manager tells me we have no upgrade schedule or licensing agreement.


Organizations can even decide never to expire specific passwords that meet the defined password length. Using Specops Password Policy features, including length-based password expiration, helps to ensure more robust password security in the environment.

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Boss says $150 a year per employee is too expensive (Company pulls good money. Dnssec keygen entropy meaning. Ron Rivest designed this algorithm. In order to look at other. Jessie supports "inline signing" of the zones, meaning that the setup is much easier On a machine with enough available entropy in /dev/random (such as a dnssec-keygen [HOST] dnssec-keygen -fk [HOST].


The short word list provides about 10.3399-bits of entropy per word. List of computer science publications by Angelos D. Keromytis. This allows each application to choose the naming scheme that best fits its needs. Moreover, most browsers today accept (non-root) certificates for 1024- bit RSA keys, even though sources speculate that they can be cracked by well-funded adversaries; thus, even a domain that revokes its old 1024-bit RSA certificates (or lets them expire. If I'm not mistaken you can use DNSSEC to authenticate, but not encrypt, your DNS requests.

Wireshark can inspect hundreds of network protocols, and even when that list is continually evolving. Accordingly, Wireshark can capture data whether you’re online or offline, allowing for uninterrupted inspection. Wireshark also supports over 20 capture file formats.


So I'm beginning to better understand why SpinRite has had so many reports of success with the recovery of data from solid-state storage. I'm beginning to think that we'll eventually have some sort of solid-state storage assessment tool unlike anything that's been done before.

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Queries resulted in NOERROR responses with no data. This corresponds to the nxrrset counter of previous versions of BIND 9.


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So he says, "It was Microsoft's Tuesday update on May 8th when it began. I had updated three of the computers when I was in the shop updating number four. All went well until the post-update reboot.

Google security researchers, along with RedHat and the GlibC team, have discovered a buffer overflow in the getaddrinfo function and have assigned it the identifier CVE-2021-7574). As a buffer overflow, it is potentially remotely exploitable and due to its presence in many embedded routines, from log scraping to intrusion detection, may be trivially exposed through a carefully crafted DNS response.


C-style comments start with the two characters /* (slash, star) and end with */ (star, slash). Because they are completely delimited with these characters, they can be used to comment only a portion of a line or to span multiple lines.

And so there were some instances, I remember that's one of the reasons that I thought that the original ZoneAlarm firewall years ago was clever was that they had adaptive stealthing. If somebody you were not connecting to tried to ping you, the ZoneAlarm firewall would drop the packet. But if you had an outbound dialogue with a given remote IP, and you got an ICMP echo request from them, then it would respond. And that ZoneAlarm firewall at the time was the only one that had this smart, adaptive ping response which allowed it to do a better job at creating whatever it was. I want to say IRC for some reason. I don't know why the IRC server would have been doing that.


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TOM: Am I remembering this right? Is this what took YouTube off the Internet, a problem with the routers in some country?

You can use advanced hunting to search for unexpected files dropped or executing in Exchange folders, which could be web shells or other attacker artifacts. See more advanced hunting queries relevant to this threat in the Analyst report in Threat Analytics and in our GitHub queries repository.


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Specifies a "Simple Secure Update" policy. See the section called “Dynamic Update Policies”.

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The working directory of the server. Any non-absolute pathnames in the configuration file will be taken as relative to this directory.


If you want predictable keys, you might need to provision each device with pre-generated keys. If you need to store them securely, use the KeyChain API on ICS, or a pass-phrase protected keystore on pre-ICS devices. Even if you don't store the actual key, if someone knows how the keys are generated (the seed), they could generate the same keys, and your keys are only as secure as the seed. If it is device specific, chances are it's not too hard to find.

Although the raw format uses the network byte order and avoids architecture-dependent data alignment so that it is as much portable as possible, it is primarily expected to be used inside the same single system. In order to export a zone file in the raw format or make a portable backup of the file, it is recommended to convert the file to the standard textual representation.


It's time for Security Now, not security in a few minutes, not security later, Security Now, the show that keeps you safe online. And of course joining us the man, the myth, the legend, GRC.com's Steve Gibson.

That behavior is "by design, " says Redmond. Architecture: DNS service All-in-one box OS info OS. By Anil Madhavapeddy, Thomas Gazagnaire. If the disk is all zeros encrypting it on a bit by bit basis against the same key will not change that the result will be either all zeros or all ones. One important aspect of automating Windows deployment and setup is enabling particular roles on Server systems.


Mitigating these vulnerabilities and investigating whether an adversary has compromised your environment should be done in parallel. Applying the March 2021 Exchange Server Security Updates is critical to prevent (re)infection, but it will not evict an adversary who has already compromised your server. Based on your investigation, remediation may be required.

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The forwarding facility can be used to create a large site-wide cache on a few servers, reducing traffic over links to external name servers. It can also be used to allow queries by servers that do not have direct access to the Internet, but wish to look up exterior names anyway. Forwarding occurs only on those queries for which the server is not authoritative and does not have the answer in its cache.


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This is made doubly true by the reality that, within the next five or so years, we really will need to migrate to keysizes greater than 1024. Defines trusted DNSSEC keys. Code in commit 2836 and commit 2843, closing ticket 594. The quick answer first, the entropy in the system you describe is what is on the hard disk, encrypting it will not change the amount of entropy it has. To include information about the protocol and cipher used as well as the client and issuer CommonName into the "Received: " message header, set the smtpd_tls_received_header variable to true.

And so the problem is, what would potentially happen is you'd have packets that would never die. I mean (like it), very much like we have, like, malware and spyware and viruses and worms that are still out there from a decade ago, trying to reproduce, they never die.


If yes, the server will collect statistical data on all zones (unless specifically turned off on a per-zone basis by specifying zone-statistics no in the zone statement). These statistics may be accessed using rndc stats, which will dump them to the file listed in the statistics-file. See also the section called “The Statistics File”.

Notify-source determines which local source address, and optionally UDP port, will be used to send NOTIFY messages. This address must appear in the slave server's masters zone clause or in an allow-notify clause. This statement sets the notify-source for all zones, but can be overridden on a per-zone or per-view basis by including a notify-source statement within the zone or view block in the configuration file.


And I'm not going to read all these over because my mouth will run dry. We've got SharePoint Server, Windows Font Driver, Windows Font Library, Microsoft Graphics Components, Microsoft Graphics, three Jet Database Engines, Microsoft Outlook. PerformancePoint Services, whatever that is. Excel, Office, Project, two in Word, VBScript Remote Code Execution, Visual Studio. Address Book has a remote code execution vulnerability.

So where does one purchase counterfeit equipment? Certainly not from C-Data, nor from any reputable reseller. Maybe this is the stuff that's found on eBay for a bargain.


Observe that even if a Windows system must ensure that multiple instances of one DLL or EXE all get loaded at the same base address, the system need not keep track of the base address once the last instance of the DLL or EXE is unloaded. If the DLL or EXE is loaded again, it can get a fresh base address.

Only meaningful if the zone has a forwarders list. The only value causes the lookup to fail after trying the forwarders and getting no answer, while first would allow a normal lookup to be tried.


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This rule matches when the name being updated matches the contents of the identity field. The name field is ignored, but should be the same as the identity field. The self nametype is most useful when allowing using one key per name to update, where the key has the same name as the name to be updated. The identity would be specified as * (an asterisk) in this case.

This indicates an adversary may have dropped a web shell file. Below is an example of such a <script> block.


With the default policy setting, you really can either turn the policy on or off and then set the number of days before the user password expires. What if you had further options to control the maximum password age and set different values based on the password complexity?

When run, it will first check if the system is vulnerable to CVE-2021-26855 and, if so, installs a mitigation for it. It then automatically downloads and runs Microsoft Safety Scanner (MSERT). This is the preferred approach when your Exchange Server has internet access.


A user updates their IP by visiting a unique link. In the guide you will find methods of automating dns updates with Linux, OSX and Windows.

Domain Name System (DNS) is a major target for the network security attacks due to the weak authentication. The output file is of the form keyset-nnnn, where nnnn is the zone name. Taming the Terminal was created as a podcast and written tutorial with Bart Busschots as the instructor and Allison Sheridan as the student. This article presents an overview of SSH, the Secure SHell. Yet Another Dan Kaminsky Talk (About much more than RNG) Dan Kaminsky Chief Scientist White Ops Special Guest: Ryan Castellucci, Security Engineer, White Ops.


Isn’t the ns-40 server still authoritative? Sure, but our earlier query just popped that information into the local cache. Why fetch up an authoritative reply when there’s one just as good in cache? Caching can be a nuisance when trying to “force” authoritative answers, especially across the Internet.

Class—Today, the only class that counts is IN for Internet address. This is usually entered only once, in the first record, and is inherited by all subsequent records for that name.


Hence when the attacker hijacked your domain name, it will be used to originate malicious movements such as installing up a fake page of repayment systems like PayPal, Visa, or bank systems. Attackers will produce an identical copy of the real website that reads critical personal knowledge, such as email addresses, usernames, and passwords.

So we have the outer layer IP packet, which contains the version number of the IP protocol, typically 4, someday more typically 6, we hope. We know that it contains some flags, like lack of fragmentation permission. It contains the overall length of the entire packet so that the router knows as data's coming in where the packet ends. We know that it contains the source IP and destination IP. We know it contains the TTL, the Time To Live, for that packet.


It’s nice to know that Amazon’s own name server is authoritative for itself. But let’s not get too worried about authoritative answers. Cached information is usually just as good. In fact, look what happens when we repeat the query.

I know that I'm involved in social networking when thousands of people are sending me this cartoon. It really filled up my Twitter feed. And I was glad for it because I appreciated knowing about it. So just for those who don't, you can just go to xkcd.com today. Or, if you're not listening to the podcast today, it's #936. So xkcd.com/936, which will get you to this fun cartoon.


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A BIND 9 configuration consists of statements and comments. Statements end with a semicolon. Statements and comments are the only elements that can appear without enclosing braces. Many statements contain a block of sub-statements, which are also terminated with a semicolon.

Given the variety of attacks that are possible against the Session layer, defending it may seem like a hopeless task. Defending the Session layer is an overwhelming task if you make the decision to not trust any hosts. While good security practice dictates that nothing should be trusted, functionality and usability require that these constraints be relaxed.


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This file is a 32-bit Windows executable written using Golang programming language. The file has been identified as a new variant of the Zebrocy backdoor. The file takes an argument that is supposed to be an Exclusive OR (XOR) and hexadecimal encoded Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) or it can run using a plaintext URI.

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Additional section caching also has a minor effect on the RRset ordering in the additional section. Without acache, cyclic order is effective for the additional section as well as the answer and authority sections. However, additional section caching fixes the ordering when it first caches an RRset for the additional section, and the same ordering will be kept in succeeding responses, regardless of the setting of rrset-order. The effect of this should be minor, however, since an RRset in the additional section typically only contains a small number of RRs (and in many cases it only contains a single RR), in which case the ordering does not matter much.


Keep track of your favorite TV shows! I suggest purchasing an Office 365 subscription. PEM (Base64 ASCII), and DER (binary). The characteristics of component-based software engineering as currently practiced can be. To use the less secure non-blocking random generator.

That shouldn't be allowed to just be done. So as I said, it's unclear whether it was that easy.


The Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND), developed for the Unix environment, is both resolver and name server. When BIND is running as name server, the process is named. Entire books have been written about DNS and BIND, so this chapter can only look at a few of the things that can be explored with a few simple DNS tools and utilities.

The transaction IDs were introduced as a mechanism to thwart the possibility that an authoritative nameserver could be impersonated to craft malicious responses. With this new setup, DNS resolvers attached a 16-bit ID to their requests to the nameservers, which would then send back a response with the same ID.


When a name server is non-recursively queried for a name that is not below the apex of any served zone, it normally answers with an "upwards referral" to the root servers or the servers of some other known parent of the query name. Since the data in an upwards referral comes from the cache, the server will not be able to provide upwards referrals when additional-from-cache no has been specified. Instead, it will respond to such queries with REFUSED. This should not cause any problems since upwards referrals are not required for the resolution process.

The data in the RDATA section of RRs is carried as a combination of binary strings and domain names. The domain names are frequently used as "pointers" to other data in the DNS.


Suppose a background service exposes a named pipe only accessible to local users and has a buffer overflow. To determine the base address of the main program and DLLs for that process, an attacker can simply launch another copy in a debugger. The offsets determined from the debugger can then be used to develop a payload to exploit the high-privileged process. This occurs because Windows does not attempt to isolate users from each other when it comes to protecting random base addresses of EXEs and DLLs.

The number in parentheses is a standard Unix-style timestamp, measured as seconds since January 1, 1970. Following that line is a set of statistics information, which is categorized as described above.


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And so they did a blanket block of all verified users. And then there were other people who had - anyone who had changed their password recently, that raised their flag of suspicion, so they blocked any posts from those accounts. I mean, they really did respond quickly, as quickly as they could.

Meanwhile, the individual has the authority of the DNS; they can guide others who obtain it to a web page that seems identical but carries extra content like advertisements. They can also guide users to pages carrying malware or a third-party search engine as well.


Two of these technologies are direct responses to the artificial scarcity of names and addresses on the Internet, and one is meant to address the lack of trust we have in the Internet. This way, it is necessary to have at least 2, out of. Whatever your application is, BIND 9 probably has the required features. Our 400, 000-entry dictionary cracked 4% of mnemonic passwords; in comparison, a standard dictionary with 1.2 million entries cracked 11% of control passwords. Dnssec-keygen reads from /dev/random by default.

Queries which the server attempted to recurse but discovered an existing query with the same IP address, port, query ID, name, type and class already being processed. This corresponds to the duplicate counter of previous versions of BIND 9.


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Name server statistics will be logged every statistics-interval minutes. The default is 60. The maximum value is 28 days (40320 minutes). If set to 0, no statistics will be logged.

TOM: There you go. All right. Let's move into the security news. And I was really excited when I saw this xkcd cartoon yesterday. Randall Munroe, who does xkcd, is really smart, really funny, and it's absolutely worth reading this every day.


Usage Most systems are not intended to be completely accessible to the public. This change significantly reduces the practicality of cache poisoning attacks. Sometime you actually have to fix. This ensures that the received DNS records have not been tampered with and are authentic. PDF is time-bound but not memory-bound; iv. the salt is unique per password and contains a maximum n bits of entropy, or perhaps more simply is n bits long and random, or for that matter is selected from a predictable set of values of size max 2^n.

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I've spent a Sunday afternoon with a friend with dogs barking in other people's backyards. And I think what happens is people must put their dogs out and then they leave, so they don't realize that their dog is just bored and just sitting there trying to, like, bark to be let back in the house. It's probably the fact that when the dog barks normally, then the dog's owners let him in the house, and he's happier being around. So inadvertently they're training the dog to bark when they let them out into the backyard, but they leave and don't know.


The view statement is a powerful feature of BIND 9 that lets a name server answer a DNS query differently depending on who is asking. It is particularly useful for implementing split DNS setups without having to run multiple servers.

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I tried copying it from another system, but got the same error. Clearly, a reinstall was in order. Now if only SpinRite could recover the missing Windows install CD," which he says as a joke because of course it was missing. He says, "The rest of the story, I was unable to locate the missing CD, so I bought a Windows Home upgrade CD, and the system is up and running once again. Jobs got done and products delivered.


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For Windows I have written a small VBScript program that can be ran by a scheduled task. The script has been tested on XP/Vista/7/8.

Welcome to Crypto Week 2020

When performing dynamic update of secure zones, the directory where the public and private key files should be found, if different than the current working directory. The directory specified must be an absolute path.


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They didn't give it 32 because the Internet could never be four billion hops in diameter. They gave it eight, and they thought, well, that's, you know. And they initially set it to 16, so just counted down from that. So if anything was more than 16 routers away, and no one was in the beginning, then there would be a problem.

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When creating a process, pre-Vista Windows loads each of the program’s needed DLLs at its preferred base address if possible. If an attacker finds a useful ROP gadget in ntdll at 0x7c90beef, for example, the attacker can assume that it will always be available at that address until a future service pack or security patch requires the DLLs to be reorganized. This means that attacks on pre-Vista Windows can chain together ROP gadgets from common DLLs to disable DEP, the lone memory corruption defense on those releases.


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When yes and the server loads a new version of a master zone from its zone file or receives a new version of a slave file by a non-incremental zone transfer, it will compare the new version to the previous one and calculate a set of differences. The differences are then logged in the zone's journal file such that the changes can be transmitted to downstream slaves as an incremental zone transfer.

The problem is with securely denying a DNS record if it does not exist. Some clients of TPNQM SA were redirected to a malicious site when they tried to access the TPNQM main site. Comments should be sent to. And then finally we're going to end up with, okay, like, we've used the term "hack" before. True; False; Answer: The correct answer is 2. Breakdown: True randomness is rare in the universe and virtually non-existent in a computer.


This option was introduced for the smooth transition from AAAA to A6 and from "nibble labels" to binary labels. However, since both A6 and binary labels were then deprecated, this option was also deprecated. It is now ignored with some warning messages.

Chapter 6. BIND 9 Configuration Reference

The key_id, also known as the key name, is a domain name uniquely identifying the key. It can be used in a server statement to cause requests sent to that server to be signed with this key, or in address match lists to verify that incoming requests have been signed with a key matching this name, algorithm, and secret.


The research was presented at the 2021 ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, which is being held this year by video because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers provide additional information here, and a UC Riverside press release is here.

Queries for which the server discovered an excessive number of existing recursive queries for the same name, type and class and were subsequently dropped. This corresponds to the dropped counter of previous versions of BIND 9.


Note that setting recursion no does not prevent clients from getting data from the server's cache; it only prevents new data from being cached as an effect of client queries. Caching may still occur as an effect the server's internal operation, such as NOTIFY address lookups.

Most statistics counters that were available in BIND 8 are also supported in BIND 9 as shown in the above tables. Here are notes about other counters that do not appear in these tables.


Protective DNS Core Capabilities

Leo: Yeah, it's why we love them. And we would love John because he's a real geek, and he understands.

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This statement intends to be flexible to support multiple communication protocols in the future, but currently only HTTP access is supported. It requires that BIND 9 be compiled with libxml2; the statistics-channels statement is still accepted even if it is built without the library, but any HTTP access will fail with an error.


The maximum value is 28 days (40320 minutes). If set to 0, interface scanning will only occur when the configuration file is loaded. After the scan, the server will begin listening for queries on any newly discovered interfaces (provided they are allowed by the listen-on configuration), and will stop listening on interfaces that have gone away.

You can say versions unlimited to not limit the number of versions. If a size option is associated with the log file, then renaming is only done when the file being opened exceeds the indicated size. No backup versions are kept by default; any existing log file is simply appended.


The zone's name may optionally be followed by a class. If a class is not specified, class IN (for Internet), is assumed. This is correct for the vast majority of cases.

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DNS generally uses UDP fundamentally and in some cases, uses TCP as well. When it uses the UDP protocol, which is connectionless and can be tricked easily.


The trusted-keys statement defines DNSSEC (discover this info here) security roots. DNSSEC is described in the section called “DNSSEC”. A security root is defined when the public key for a non-authoritative zone is known, but cannot be securely obtained through DNS, either because it is the DNS root zone or because its parent zone is unsigned. Once a key has been configured as a trusted key, it is treated as if it had been validated and proven secure. The resolver attempts DNSSEC validation on all DNS data in subdomains of a security root.

I mean (check it out), if we ever had that many hops. You'd have to be probably in a very deep hole somewhere, trying to reach somebody else in a very deep hole somewhere else.


An interesting quirk of the DNS protocol is response packets may contain answers for records that were not queried. For example, if a site is hosted on a content distribution system, the DNS response may contain both a CNAME and its corresponding A record. This saves the client from requerying for the CNAME.

Modifiers are introduced by a { (left brace) immediately following the $ as ${offset[,width[,base]]}. For example, ${-20,3,d} subtracts 20 from the current value, prints the result as a decimal in a zero-padded field of width 3. Available output forms are decimal (d), octal (o) and hexadecimal (x or X for uppercase). The default modifier is ${0,0,d}. If the lhs is not absolute, the current $ORIGIN is appended to the name.


Specifies which local addresses can accept ordinary DNS questions. This makes it possible, for instance, to allow queries on internal-facing interfaces but disallow them on external-facing ones, without necessarily knowing the internal network's addresses.

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If master-only, notifies are only sent for master zones. If explicit, notifies are sent only to servers explicitly listed using also-notify.


SSH2 does not automatically resume port forwarding without some scripting. Nonetheless, the random source port selection and regeneration of an ISN also mitigates the effectiveness of spoofed RST packets.

While everyone hopes that the world returns to its previous state, it’s evident that work dynamics have changed forever. From now on, we can assume a hybrid work environment.


Following the owner, we list the TTL, type, and class of the RR. Class and type use the mnemonics defined above, and TTL is an integer before the type field. In order to avoid ambiguity in parsing, type and class mnemonics are disjoint, TTLs are integers, and the type mnemonic is always last. The IN class and TTL values are often omitted from examples in the interests of clarity.

This should be set when you have multiple masters for a zone and the addresses refer to different machines. If yes, named will not log when the serial number on the master is less than what named currently has.


It's beginning to break these rules. And it's the integrity of these rules which is so responsible for the Internet surviving as well as it has, and for the Internet being as apolitical, like in the true sense of politics. It doesn't like or dislike any particular traffic. It doesn't know or care what this traffic or that traffic is. It just gets it, and it sends it towards its destination.

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And so all these ports are is agreement. They're just abstractions that have been sort of universally agreed to. Servers, mail servers will listen on port 110, 143, and 25. DNS servers listen on port 53. Web servers listen on port 80 and for secure traffic on 443.


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The addition of the key clause made the name of this syntactic element something of a misnomer, since security keys can be used to validate access without regard to a host or network address. Nonetheless, the term "address match list" is still used throughout the documentation.

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Specify what server name will appear in the returned SOA record for empty zones. If none is specified, then the zone's name will be used.


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Steve: So "allegedly" to everything so far, unless we get it officially. And who knows when and/or if what we'll get officially from Twitter.

UDP is the protocol of different choices for this variety of attacks, as it does not build a connection state. For example, suppose a spoofed source of IP in the SYN package of a TCP connection would cause immediate termination just because the SYN/ACK will go away.


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Additional section caching does not change the response content (except the RRsets ordering of the additional section, see below), but can improve the response performance significantly. It is particularly effective when BIND 9 acts as an authoritative server for a zone that has many delegations with many glue RRs.

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Specifies host names or addresses of machines with access to both IPv4 and IPv6 transports. If a hostname is used, the server must be able to resolve the name using only the transport it has.


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Specifies which local addresses can accept recursive queries. If not specified, the default is to allow recursive queries on all addresses.

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Write memory statistics to the file specfied by memstatistics-file at exit. The default is no unless '-m record' is specified on the command line in which case it is yes.


We not only need to visualize these but manage them on a case-by-case basis. Previously, this would require a deep, tedious dive into file systems, shares, and AD groups.

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If yes, and a DNS query requests recursion, then the server will attempt to do all the work required to answer the query. If recursion is off and the server does not already know the answer, it will return a referral response.


An IPv6 address, such as 2001:db8 :1234. IPv6 scoped addresses that have ambiguity on their scope zones must be disambiguated by an appropriate zone ID with the percent character (`%') as delimiter. It is strongly recommended to use string zone names rather than numeric identifiers, in order to be robust against system configuration changes. However, since there is no standard mapping for such names and identifier values, currently only interface names as link identifiers are supported, assuming one-to-one mapping between interfaces and links. For example, a link-local address fe80 :1 on the link attached to the interface ne0 can be specified as fe80 :1%ne0. Note that on most systems link-local addresses always have the ambiguity, and need to be disambiguated.

Steve: I also noted that Firefox Send is still not receiving. And this is becoming a curious outage because you wouldn't think that requiring everyone to have an account tied to a verified email address, when that was already an option, nor adding a Report Abuse button would be a heavy lift for Mozilla. So it's beginning to feel as though perhaps something more substantial might be going on behind the scenes. And if they're able to make Firefox Send better by making it even more resistant to abuse in other ways, so that it doesn't again immediately fall victim to malware purveyors, I would say it's probably worth waiting for. So I've just sort of been checking back. And it's like, it's been a while now. It's like, ah, that's sort of interesting that it's still off the grid.


Log queries that have been forced to use plain DNS due to timeouts. This is often due to the remote servers not being RFC 1034 compliant (not always returning FORMERR or similar to EDNS queries and other extensions to the DNS when they are not understood). In other words, this is targeted at servers that fail to respond to DNS queries that they don't understand.

But the point, the key of the concept is the bad guy has no idea what you've done. And if they did have an idea, if the bad guy knew that, for example, a password was four dictionary words, then, yes, then you've restricted the domain of experimentation. But the bad guy has no idea what you've done. So the fact is, it is much easier to make a much stronger password of a certain length by adding, changing the case, and salting it with some special characters.


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As described above, domain servers store information as a series of resource records, each of which contains a particular piece of information about a given domain name (which is usually, but not always, a host). The simplest way to think of a RR is as a typed pair of data, a domain name matched with a relevant datum, and stored with some additional type information to help systems determine when the RR is relevant.

BZ# 951255 Prior to this update, the /dev/random device, which is a source of random data, did not have a sufficient amount of entropy when booting a newly installed virtual machine (VM). Since Dan Kaminsky is active in this thread, I'd love to see him answer this question. Read all of the posts by tbentropy on Musings of a Developer. A patch has been applied, and the ownership of documentation files installed by the bind package has been corrected. Thus, clients and resolvers can verify that DNS responses have not been forged or altered, using DNSSEC.


When the PDNS service encounters a malicious or suspicious query, it can respond in several ways. The PDNS may restrict access to the requested domain by returning an NXDOMAIN response, meaning no IP address for the queried domain. The PDNS can also redirect the request to an alternative default page with information that the original domain queried has been blocked. Finally, the PDNS may also “sinkhole” the domain, providing a custom response and preventing or delaying the execution of further cyber threats such as crypto blocking by ransomware or the use of command-and-control protocols. This last approach enables a cybersecurity response team to investigate or initiate infection hunting while a threat remains active.

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It was used in BIND 8 to specify the pathname to the named-xfer program. In BIND 9, no separate named-xfer program is needed; its functionality is built into the name server.


By allowing incremental zone transfers to be used for non-dynamic zones, this option saves bandwidth at the expense of increased CPU and memory consumption at the master. In particular, if the new version of a zone is completely different from the previous one, the set of differences will be of a size comparable to the combined size of the old and new zone version, and the server will need to temporarily allocate memory to hold this complete difference set.

Obviously DNS is not going to become the next great CDN hack (though I had a great trick for that too). But there’s a real question: How much data should we be putting into the DNS?


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The Domain Internet Groper (dig) DNS query tool is more general than nslookup, and is often used with other tools. It has a consistent output format that is easily parsed with other programs, and is available for Windows 2000/XP (but not 98/ME).

Proposed Standard RFC. Disappointingly, DNSSEC does not help with this stealth secondary setup, and in some ways hurts: Zone transfers do not validate DNSSEC signatures, so it doesn't provide a replacement for TSIG. A reader asks, "We've all heard of SSH. My question is whether SSH is really the best option, or the only option? DNSSEC implanted the digital signature mechanism of public-key cryptography into the DNS system [4-7].


Their vulnerability report was full of glaring inaccuracies. The good news is that their mis-disclosure didn't actually put all of those C-Data customers' networks at risk because they never were at risk. C-Data understood that any default access credentials need to be constrained to the device's local serial configuration port. And that's the way the authentic device works. But purchasers of counterfeit C-Data equipment were not so fortunate.

A domain name identifies a node. Each node has a set of resource information, which may be empty. The set of resource information associated with a particular name is composed of separate RRs. The order of RRs in a set is not significant and need not be preserved by name servers, resolvers, or other parts of the DNS. However, sorting of multiple RRs is permitted for optimization purposes, for example, to specify that a particular nearby server be tried first. See the section called “The sortlist Statement” and the section called “RRset Ordering”.


Try to refresh the zone using TCP if UDP queries fail. For BIND 8 compatibility, the default is yes.

At the moment, stopping large–scale DoS attacks is an area that is brimming with research and new security products. As it stands, not many advances have been made beyond designing a scalable architecture that you’re willing to spend a lot of money on in the face of a DoS, and contacting your upstream provider to filter certain netblocks on router access lists.


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It was used in BIND 8 to determine whether a transaction log was kept for Incremental Zone Transfer. BIND 9 maintains a transaction log whenever possible. If you need to disable outgoing incremental zone transfers, use provide-ixfr no.

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The server statement can occur at the top level of the configuration file or inside a view statement. If a view statement contains one or more server statements, only those apply to the view and any top-level ones are ignored. If a view contains no server statements, any top-level server statements are used as defaults.


Key rollover is the process of generating and using a new key (symmetric or asymmetric key pair) to replace one already in use. T able II summarized password requirements for AAL-2. Shell commands are shown with a $ prefix: $ cd working/keys. Nickname: Password: Public Terminal. Cracked Ethereum Wallet return in Hashcat.

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Look forward to it. Thank you, Steve. I'll be back with you next week. Leo will be on jury duty for one more week. And we'll be covering another Q&A session next week. Don't forget, you can find all the things Steve does, and he does some great stuff, over at GRC.com: ShieldsUP, SpinRite, the Haystack protocol we were talking about earlier in the show with xkcd.


Leo: You couldn't, on surface examination, you couldn't - there's no way to know. I mean (https://soyoungsodesign.com/serial-code/?file=9911), it looks like the same circuit board, practically.

At the end of the day, small security teams deal with many challenges. As all security teams go, they have the burden of tedious tasks and operational demands while needing to keep the business going.


And we've seen the damage that can simply be done by elevation of privilege bugs. Since today's operating systems are hosting so much content from so many various sources, maintaining isolation and control among them is one of any modern system's top jobs. This month I didn't even attempt to count those problems that were fixed. But as we noted, I decided to parse the list for the even worse remote code execution vulnerabilities that were just eliminated last week.

One of the many features of an Active Directory Password Policy is the maximum password age. Traditional Active Directory environments have long using password aging as a means to bolster password security. Native password aging in the default Active Directory Password Policy is relatively limited in configuration settings.


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The setup penalty, it turns out, can be amortized across multiple queries. Did you know that you can run many queries off the same TCP DNS socket, pretty much exactly like HTTP pipelines?

Selecting authentication protocols provides the strongest means (find out more) of defense against attempts to sniff the session startup. Where possible, Legacy protocols should be discarded in favor of stronger authentication protocols.


We're like, oh, well, we'll get close, and then we'll start to figure it out. But I think the only weakness that I can think of in this is if somebody cracks a password in some SQL injection attack at a site that was not properly salted, and they get your format, and they want to go after you. And so they go, okay, it looks like he takes the last two letters of the domain name, and then always has the word "d0g" spelled with a zero.

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Weak authentication traffic can be placed in its own VLAN to further protect against sniffing and hijacking attempts. While virtual local private network (VLAN) separation can be defeated, this adds a layer of defense that will keep out most attackers.


If yes, then the server treats all zones as if they are doing zone transfers across a dial-on-demand dialup link, which can be brought up by traffic originating from this server. This has different effects according to zone type and concentrates the zone maintenance so that it all happens in a short interval, once every heartbeat-interval and hopefully during the one call. It also suppresses some of the normal zone maintenance traffic.

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Only meaningful if notify is active for this zone. The set of machines that will receive a DNS NOTIFY message for this zone is made up of all the listed name servers (other than the primary master) for the zone plus any IP addresses specified with also-notify. A port may be specified with each also-notify address to send the notify messages to a port other than the default of 53. also-notify is not meaningful for stub zones.


If you are using the address ranges covered here, you should already have reverse zones covering the addresses you use. In practice this appears to not be the case with many queries being made to the infrastructure servers for names in these spaces. So many in fact that sacrificial servers were needed to be deployed to channel the query load away from the infrastructure servers.

Protective DNS (PDNS) is any security service that analyzes DNS queries and takes action to mitigate threats, leveraging the existing DNS protocol and architecture. Protective DNS prevents access to malware, ransomware, phishing attacks, viruses, malicious sites, and spyware at the source, making the network inherently more secure.


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There are currently two user interfaces to get access to the statistics. One is in the plain text format dumped to the file specified by the statistics-file configuration option.

Improperly configured DNS servers normally cause DNS poisoning. Recursive queries should be disabled from external hosts to mitigate the Session layer attacks against DNS.


The Diffie-Hellman key used by the server to generate shared keys with clients using the Diffie-Hellman mode of TKEY. The server must be able to load the public and private keys from files in the working directory. In most cases, the keyname should be the server's host name.

Note: the log message can also be due to packet loss. Before reporting servers for non-RFC 1034 compliance they should be re-tested to determine the nature of the non-compliance. This testing should prevent or reduce the number of false-positive reports.


DNSSEC Challenges and Solutions

Microsoft released security updates for four different on premises Microsoft Exchange Server zero-day vulnerabilities (CVE-2021-26855, CVE-2021-26858, CVE-2021-26857, and CVE-2021-27065). These vulnerabilities can be used in combination to allow unauthenticated remote code execution on devices running Exchange Server. Microsoft has also observed subsequent web shell implantation, code execution, and data exfiltration activities during attacks. This threat may be exacerbated by the fact that numerous organizations publish Exchange Server deployments to the internet to support mobile and work-from-home scenarios.

The server can supply extensive debugging information when it is in debugging mode. If the server's global debug level is greater than zero, then debugging mode will be active. The global debug level is set either by starting the named server with the -d flag followed by a positive integer, or by running rndc trace. The global debug level can be set to zero, and debugging mode turned off, by running rndcnotrace. All debugging messages in the server have a debug level, and higher debug levels give more detailed output.


The usual reason for setting max-udp-size to a non-default value is to get UDP answers to pass through broken firewalls that block fragmented packets and/or block UDP packets that are greater than 512 bytes. This is independent of the advertised receive buffer (edns-udp-size).

This value should reflect how many queries come in for a given name in the time it takes to resolve that name. If the number of queries exceed this value, named will assume that it is dealing with a non-responsive zone and will drop additional queries. If it gets a response after dropping queries, it will raise the estimate. The estimate will then be lowered in 20 minutes if it has remained unchanged.


For queries sent over IPv6, there is a separate query-source-v6 option. If address is * (asterisk) or is omitted, a wildcard IP address (INADDR_ANY) will be used. If port is * or is omitted, a random unprivileged port number is picked up and will be used for each query. Previously, the use-queryport-pool was provided to support a pool of such random ports, but this option is now obsolete because reusing the same ports in the pool is not sufficiently secure. For the same reason, it is generally strongly discouraged to specify a particular port for the query-source or query-source-v6 options; it implicitly disables the use of randomized port numbers. The avoid-v4-udp-ports and avoid-v6-udp-ports options can be used to prevent named from selecting certain ports.

While examining the techniques for defending the Session layer, keep in mind that solutions only need to be implemented to protect traffic on untrusted networks. This approach can leave you vulnerable to attacks from insiders, which are particularly difficult to defend against. Your tolerance for risk must ultimately dictate what level of defense is appropriate. Countermeasures such as preventing attackers from injecting data into an active session and preventing route table modifications can also slow an attacker.


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To that entry, add. The Hashcat shows the password as plantpot123. Next day other manager tells me (*the intern*) that she spoke with a rich business friend whose company uses fake/cracked license keys and we should do the same to keep costs down. It is specifically unlikely that only a third of one particular product. Use log level 3 only in case of problems.

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When multiple records are returned in an answer it may be useful to configure the order of the records placed into the response. The rrset-order statement permits configuration of the ordering of the records in a multiple record response. See also the sortlist statement, the section called “The sortlist Statement”.


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These options are intended for use in authoritative-only servers, or in authoritative-only views. Attempts to set them to no without also specifying recursion no will cause the server to ignore the options and log a warning message.

The server's usage of many system resources can be limited. Scaled values are allowed when specifying resource limits.


To address issues arising from ARP spoofing, tools such as arpwatch (available from can be employed to monitor the MAC/IP pairings on critical subnets. Also, many switches have the ability to hard code a single MAC address that can be connected to a given port. By employing this across critical subnets, the possibility of MAC spoofing is entirely eliminated. Spoofed MAC addresses will not be permitted to pass any traffic.

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Description: This week we, of course, start off by looking at what happened at Twitter last week. We look at Checkpoint's discovery of the headline-grabbing wormable DNS vulnerability that's been present in all Windows Servers for the past 17 years. We touch on last week's Patch Tuesday, Cloudflare's surprise outage, another glitch in Zoom's product, and seven "no-logging" VPN providers whose logs were all found online.


And that simple, just something that simple, that measure solves the problem of packets living forever. And in fact what the router will do is it reports - this is one problem that it reports. We talked last week about how, if routers got congested, they would not generate a report. That is, if a router was trying to forward a packet, and the buffer on the outgoing link couldn't hold any more packets waiting for transmission, it had permission, formal permission from the original designers to simply discard the packet. Well, that was one of the things that freaked out the original designers because this meant that sending traffic across the Internet was unreliable. You couldn't count on it getting there. But they said, hey, that's a consequence of packet routing.

In BIND 8, fetch-glue yes caused the server to attempt to fetch glue resource records it didn't have when constructing the additional data section of a response. This is now considered a bad idea and BIND 9 never does it.


Steve Gibson: Yeah, he actually, as we know, it's not that he's still waiting to see whether he has jury duty, as he was a week ago, but he actually did get impaneled, as it's called, and he's one of the 12 jurors. Or I guess he could be one of the auxiliaries or the extras. But he's on a really interesting case which he can't talk about because you're not supposed to when you're on a jury until I guess afterwards.

The syslog destination clause directs the channel to the system log. Its argument is a syslog facility as described in the syslog man page.


They said: "C-Data noticed that Pierre Kim released security vulnerabilities in C-Data OLT on the GitHub website. C-Data immediately started investigation and analysis. We will give report as soon as possible. C-Data adheres to protecting the ultimate interests of users with best efforts and provide customer with safety products.

ZSK The ZSKs are kept in the disk of the signer, each encrypted with a symmetric key, which is then split in 2: 8 scheme using the Shamir Secret Sharing Scheme (SSSS). The valid levels are defined and described in [HOST] roll_phasemsg The. The Systemd system management daemon was designed to replace current init system inherited from UNIX System V operating systems such Linux and thus making current init system obsolete. These configuration data are used if nothing else has been specified for a particular program. Bot detection system based on deep learning US20190058717A1 (en) * 2020-08-15: 2020-02-21: Check Point Software Technologies Ltd.


The notify option may also be specified in the zone statement, in which case it overrides the options notify statement. It would only be necessary to turn off this option if it caused slaves to crash.

If you want to design algorithms, start by breaking the ones out there. Practice by breaking algorithms that have already been broken (without peeking at the answers). Break something no one else has broken.


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It is only meaningful for a slave zone. If not specified, the default is to process notify messages only from a zone's master.

Zones defined within a view statement will be only be accessible to clients that match the view. By defining a zone of the same name in multiple views, different zone data can be given to different clients, for example, "internal" and "external" clients in a split DNS setup.


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As mentioned earlier, Windows has a concept of Forwarding Zones, or Forward Zones, that will make requests on behalf of an authoritative zone. In theory these perform the same function as caching resolvers: they make recursive queries, cache the answers, and return results. Forward Zones are often deployed in large networks to limit the load on authoritative servers. The busy server can offload recursive queries to the Forwarding server and just receive responses. Some people argue that this is a more secure setup as well, since the authoritative server is not directly querying the Internet. Typical DNS attacks like spoofing responses would be equally effective in this setup, since the authoritative server would receive the same bogus answer from the forwarding server. Also, if the resolver libraries themselves were vulnerable to malicious response packets, both the forwarding server and authoritative server would be exploitable by the same payload. But it does limit some network-related risks, such as a misconfigured firewall that allowed the public Internet to query the resolver.

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Each section consists of lines, each containing the statistics counter value followed by its textual description. See below for available counters. For brevity, counters that have a value of 0 are not shown in the statistics file.


The maximum amount of memory in bytes to use for the server's acache. When the amount of data in the acache reaches this limit, the server will clean more aggressively so that the limit is not exceeded. In a server with multiple views, the limit applies separately to the acache of each view.

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This effects DNSSEC tools like dnssec-keygen and dnssec-signzone, but it can also have a performance impact on a DNSSEC enabled DNS Server that is re-signing a dynamic zone or a DNS resolver validating DNSSEC data for a client. It is a reference implementation of those protocols, but it is also production-grade software, suitable for use in high-volume and high-reliability applications. They are three separate corporations, which exist for different reasons, and under different tax regulations (PCH and Quad9 are public-benefit not-for-profits, whereas WoodyNet exists to pay taxes on taxable transactions and keep the non-profits' books clean), but they're. Aside from a few articles here and there, the "real world exploits" for this stuff, where someone actually gets harmed. As such, a password that consists of four random.


Response speed is the name of the game. Everyone will tell you that automation is key. The guide takes it a step further and also suggests how to remove overheads from security stacks as well as how to reduce analyst work inefficiencies.

Reasonable values are up to 1 day (1440 minutes). The maximum value is 28 days (40320 minutes). If set to 0, no zone maintenance for these zones will occur.


The problem is both ping and traceroute have security problems. I'm guilty of popularizing the notion of computers being stealthful, of them not revealing themselves at all. And one of the things that ping does is it says, ah, there's somebody at that IP address. Well, if everybody were wearing white hats, and we were all being good guys, then this wouldn't be a problem. But it's sometimes the case, unfortunately, that bad guys are using these protocols against us, and ping can create a security vulnerability just verifying that that machine is there.

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Sets the maximum EDNS UDP message size named will send in bytes. Valid values are 512 to 4096 (values outside this range will be silently adjusted).


Windows 8 and 10 contain optional features to forcibly enable ASLR on images not marked as ASLR compatible, and to randomize virtual memory allocations so that rebased images obtain a random base address. This is useful in the case where an EXE is ASLR compatible, but one of the DLLs it uses is not. Defenders should enable these features to apply ASLR more broadly, and importantly, to help discover any remaining non-ASLR-compatible software so it can be upgraded or replaced.

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The same DNS message format is used for queries and responses. The DNS query message goes out with a 12-octet header and a variable number of questions. The DNS response message essentially pastes on a variable number of three types of response fields: answer RRs, RRs identifying authoritative servers, and RRs with additional information. Figure 19/3 shows the general format of the DNS message.


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I got out the CD storage case and found my copy of SpinRite which I had burned to CD, popped it in, and ran the recovery. After a few hours I came back, and it was finished. It had recovered some sectors and marked several others as unrecoverable.

And I think what we've discussed before is that apparently Google has a different relationship with Adobe where they've got, essentially, their own version of Flash that they're building in and may be responsible for themselves, or may get updates directly from Adobe which they then push out in Chrome. So as you said, it's just doing it automatically by itself.


Address match lists are primarily used to determine access control for various server operations. They are also used in the listen-on and sortlist statements.

The default and minimum is 3. If the kernel supports the accept filter "dataready" this also controls how many TCP connections that will be queued in kernel space waiting for some data before being passed to accept. Values less than 3 will be silently raised.


If the operating system does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the operating system passwords could be compromised. Although signing does solve that problem, it introduces another. DNSSEC is many things, but small is not one of them. On earlier TCP/IP implementation the entropy in the port number generation was very low, meaning the answer was easier to predict; The DNS identifier of the answer should match the query. Set up DNSSEC on my primary DNS (pulsar) for my main zone 7. Reap the benefits, including SSHFP records etc.

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Split DNS directs internal hosts to an internal domain name server for name resolution and external hosts are directed to an external 10 IT Certification Guaranteed, The Easy. How to Implement DNSSEC without Losing Your Mind OWASP Atlanta - Feb 15, Joseph Gersch Secure64 Software Corporation. Microsoft is planning to release DANE and DNSSEC for SMTP in two phases, with the first one to include only outbound support during December 2020 and with the second to add inbound support by the end of next year. If zonesigner appears hung, you may have to add entropy to the random number These commands are dnssec-keygen, dnssec-signzone, and zonesigner. RC4 - Rivest Cipher 4 (symmetric algorithms) Symmetric algorithms are characterized by using the same key for both encryption and decryption.


You cannot use the semicolon (`;') character to start a comment such as you would in a zone file. The semicolon indicates the end of a configuration statement.

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So the idea would be someone at that location trying to send a packet to the machine at the other farthest away point on the Internet. Well, even with everything working correctly, no router loops, no routing table problems, if the operating system generating the source, the original IP packet, were setting its TTL too low, it couldn't reach the destination.


So, yup, they were embarrassed and apologetic. And as we said, they already put safeguards in place so that nothing like that can happen again.

For a primary server, a zone file in the raw format is expected to be generated from a textual zone file by the named-compilezone command. For a secondary server or for a dynamic zone, it is automatically generated (if this format is specified by the masterfile-format option) when named dumps the zone contents after zone transfer or when applying prior updates.


And then, similarly, it's Adobe's turn. Adobe's been really quiet now for a few months. We haven't had much happening with them. But now they're just letting loose the floodgates. All of their main components are being updated: Flash, Air, and Shockwave.

Some readers might have noticed the elaborate form of the IPv6 addresses used on the Illustrated Network. This is because IPv6 once used something called the binary label syntax. IPv6 addresses use the first bits (really, whole words) of the 128-bit IPv6 address to indicate the ISP. The A6 records included a referral field to allow a name server to refer to the ISP's name server for the “network” portion of the IPv6 address. The A6 record also gave the number and value of the bits present in the A6 record itself. This prevented the laborious entry of many redundant bits into the resource records. It also made shifting service providers easier. So, a query for an A6 record might only get the last 64 bits of an IPv6 address. A further referral query to the name server in the A6 record is necessary for the first 64 bits. The DNAME records do the same for the Pv6 host name.


Even worse, the attacks can be used to snoop on encrypted traffic or to bypass important security measures such as DNSSEC specification preventing the tampering of domain name system records. The most troubling scenario involves bypassing HTTPS encryption by forcing a computer to accept an expired transport layer security certificate.

Once a channel is defined, it cannot be redefined. Thus you cannot alter the built-in channels directly, but you can modify the default logging by pointing categories at channels you have defined.


The way it works is yes, you do, and I did, to get 13/6. But the reason is because they do staged rollouts. So everybody will get pushed it eventually, and you'll get a notification that there's an update. But they don't do it right away. So, yeah, once you read that there's an update, you can absolutely go to the updates and get it. But they typically won't push it to you for a week or two after that. Then they'll say, hey, there's an update. Which actually is kind of the right way to do it because it gives people who want it right away a chance to get it, but it also gives it some time to sit and stew in case there's any issues.

Why did Windows need to support preferred base addresses? The answer lies in performance and in trade-offs made in the design of Windows DLLs versus other designs like ELF shared libraries. Windows DLLs are not position independent. Especially on 32-bit machines, if Windows DLL code needs to reference a global variable, the runtime address of that variable gets hardcoded into the machine code. If the DLL gets loaded at a different address than was expected, relocation is performed to fix up such hardcoded references. If the DLL instead gets loaded as its preferred base address, no relocation is necessary, and the DLL’s code can be directly mapped into memory from the file system.


In particular, they suggest asking your security vendor for their customer success and offered services. Some vendors provide a range of free offerings, but many customers don’t realize this and forego the opportunity to extend their security team virtually.

Yes, every key bit doubles an algorithm’s strength against brute-force attacks. But it’s hard to find any real meaning in a work factor of 249152.


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Steve: And run off a few more copies. So in the case of the C-Data counterfeit, a seriously dangerous, remotely accessible backdoor was definitely installed into the counterfeit devices. In the case of the extremely elaborate Cisco counterfeits, all the ingenuity was expended in creating a virtually indistinguishable clone of the original and then engineering around Cisco's detection that its prized network operating system was running in counterfeit and unauthorized hardware. So an interesting tale of two counterfeits.

This system uses BIND9 to host the DNS and PHP to handle the update requests. Setting up BIND and Apache/Nginx/PHP is outside the scope of this guide.


Fact 1: ASLR was introduced in Windows Vista. Pre-Vista versions of Windows lacked ASLR; worse, they went to great lengths to maintain a consistent address space across all processes and machines.

Each view statement defines a view of the DNS namespace that will be seen by a subset of clients. A client matches a view if its source IP address matches the address_match_list of the view's match-clients clause and its destination IP address matches the address_match_list of the view's match-destinations clause. If not specified, both match-clients and match-destinations default to matching all addresses. In addition to checking IP addresses match-clients and match-destinations can also take keys which provide an mechanism for the client to select the view. A view can also be specified as match-recursive-only, which means that only recursive requests from matching clients will match that view. The order of the view statements is significant — a client request will be resolved in the context of the first view that it matches.


The nslookup utility program allows a user to interact with a DNS name server directly. Options allow the user to display detailed query and response information as needed. Originally a testing tool, nslookup functions in both interactive and non-interactive mode. Today, the use of nslookup is deprecated, and it is not included in many operating system distributions. Its functionality has been taken over by dig and host.

The time-to-live of the RR field is a 32-bit integer represented in units of seconds, and is primarily used by resolvers when they cache RRs. The TTL describes how long a RR can be cached before it should be discarded. The following three types of TTL are currently used in a zone file.


Once the source address of the query has been matched, if the top level statement contains only one element, the actual primitive element that matched the source address is used to select the address in the response to move to the beginning of the response. If the statement is a list of two elements, then the second element is treated the same as the address_match_list in a topology statement. Each top level element is assigned a distance and the address in the response with the minimum distance is moved to the beginning of the response.

So people may have noticed in some cases, if any of our listeners have done traceroutes, you'll sometimes notice that you'll get back a few, like first a few hops, and then there's like a dead zone of some number of hops. And then suddenly it comes alive again. What that dead zone is, is a range of routers that have been administratively configured not to send back time exceeded messages when they expire packets en route. They won't reveal their presence. So there's just a blacked out area in a traceroute. Then it'll come alive again because they're willing to pass those time exceeded packets through their network, just not to originate them.


Although DNSSEC enables authentication of RRsets, it also adds complexity to the requirements for name resolution and increases the potential for failure. Any misconfiguration of server or zone in the line of trust between anchor and name queried widens the target of error.

Steve: Yeah, they're on some server in a closet somewhere that got infected with Code Red or Nimda or something. And it's just out there randomly probing the Internet, the way it has been for 10 years, and it's never going to go away. So the designers said, okay, we need expiration of packets. We want the packet to be able to get to its destination. But we need it not to live forever because that would be bad. The entire Internet would end up getting clogged up potentially with packets that never die, that just go around in circles forever and bog the whole system down.


Steve: Well, and kind of that boing-boing sound that our listeners will hear from time to time in this podcast, that is a lost packet. That is a packet that was either lost or delayed too long. And the codec which is reconstructing that couldn't wait any longer.

So they've issued 13 updates which address 22 different vulnerabilities. We get the standard update to the MSRT, the Malicious Software Removal Tool, which they're continuing to refine and add signatures to month by month. And of course we know that that does a quick scan prior to applying patches because what Microsoft discovered the hard way was that patching was failing in instances where users' machines were infected with something which was interacting with their patches. So they had to add this preemptive MSRT to make sure that it was safe to change the DLLs that make up Windows because some of these the malware was written specifically to particular versions of the Microsoft prior patches. And so if anything was updated, it could cause, like, the system to break. It wouldn't be able to reboot, and users were blaming Microsoft when it was in fact the case that their system was already in bad shape, already had something that had crept into it.


If no class is specified, the default is ANY. If no type is specified, the default is ANY. If no name is specified, the default is "*" (asterisk).

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The server statement defines characteristics to be associated with a remote name server. If a prefix length is specified, then a range of servers is covered.


As for why this doesn't work, the RSA key generator basically generates random BigIntegers in a loop, testing for primes. The prime test is probabilistic, so you might get different primes chosen on each run.

Or I have the URL in the show notes. If you click it, they solicit your name and organization name and email address.


Next, you can measure your policies against standards set by NIST, PCI, Microsoft, and SANS. It’s even easy to test your policies against brute-force attacks. This promotes adherence to best practices.

Steve: Nope, we've got it. And we will continue when we continue the series with talking about the TCP protocol, which is so brilliantly conceived, it's equal to all the brilliance that we've talked about so far. It is just a spectacular protocol.


We’ll go against common wisdom and make a Windows system (winsrv1) our primary DNS server, and we will use the FreeBSD server (bsdserver) as the secondary DNS for LAN1 and LAN2. The Windows used in the first edition of this book did not support DNS natively (some version of Windows do now), so we used a GUI-based DNS server package called SimpleDNS instead of BIND.

Decrypt and crack your MD5, SHA1, SHA256, MySQL, and NTLM hashes for free online. Posted by Nicolas Krassas at 10: 38 AM. Email This BlogThis! Discussions around DNSSEC are so often focused on the root, the attacks, what DNSSEC does and doesn't do and so on - and these are all valid and important points. OpenSSL contains an open-source implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols. Kaminsky On DNS Bugs a Year Later and DNSSEC.


And even as F-Secure said, hey, you know, these counterfeits typically work just as well. But it was an update to the firmware that caused them to be caught out because the workaround for the firmware authentication, the Secure Boot technology essentially, broke when the product was updated.

Dig has been criticized for feature bloat. For comparison, the host DNS utility retains the clean and sparse Unix output philosophy.


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The attempt of opening a statistics channel is restricted by the optional allow clause. Connections to the statistics channel are permitted based on the address_match_list. If no allow clause is present, named accepts connection attempts from any address; since the statistics may contain sensitive internal information, it is highly recommended to restrict the source of connection requests appropriately.

The time-to-live of the RR. This field is a 32-bit integer in units of seconds, and is primarily used by resolvers when they cache RRs. The TTL describes how long a RR can be cached before it should be discarded.


When an attacker sends a response over the wrong port, the server will send a response that the port is unreachable, which drains the global rate limit by one. When the attacker sends a request over the right port, the server will give no response at all, which doesn’t change the rate limit counter. If the attacker probes 1,000 different ports with spoofed responses in one second and all of them are closed, the entire rate limit will be drained completely. If, on the other hand, one out of the 1,000 ports is open, then the limit will be drained to 999.

Many of the options given in the options statement can also be used within a view statement, and then apply only when resolving queries with that view. When no view-specific value is given, the value in the options statement is used as a default. Also, zone options can have default values specified in the view statement; these view-specific defaults take precedence over those in the options statement.


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So the way that works is normally you emit an IP packet of whatever sort with a TTL deliberately large enough to get to the other end, wherever it's going. And these days we set them to 128 or sometimes 255, and off they go. And that's all you hear about it. But we do know that any router that is responsible for expiring a packet by decrementing that TTL value to zero, it has a responsibility to send back a notice that, sorry, this thing died on the vine. We couldn't, I'm not allowed to send it any further, and I'm not going to. So I'm going to send you back a notice letting you know. And the ICMP packet that it sends back has its IP, that is, the IP address of its own interface that it uses for originating that packet back to you. So when you, the sender of a packet that died out there on the Internet somewhere, receive this ICMP time exceeded message, you get the source IP of that message is the router IP where the packet died.

Apple recently updated its iOS and macOS with a handful of useful security patches. There's not much detail because Apple doesn't provide much. But I scanned them, and they looked important.


The vulnerabilities reside in the Network Time Protocol, the widely used specification computers use to ensure their internal clocks are accurate. Surprisingly, connections between computers and NTP servers are rarely encrypted, making it possible for hackers to perform man-in-the-middle attacks that reset clocks to times that are months or even years in the past. In a paper published Wednesday titled Attacking the Network Time Protocol, the researchers described several techniques to bypass measures designed to prevent such drastic time shifts. The paper also described ways to prevent large numbers of computers from successfully connecting to synchronization servers.

And executive director of PCH, and chairman of Quad9's board. Allow the callback to return more than max_len bytes of entropy but discard any extra: it is the callback's responsibility to ensure that the extra data discarded does not impact the requested amount of entropy. Contents Dive into the world of hacking with this indepth manual that covers the big topics from the Linux kernel and wider open-source OS to hacking. Weekly Internet Security Podcast: Before plowing into 10 questions from our listeners, Leo and I discuss Microsoft's Second Tuesday patches, the CA Security Council's reaction to Chrome's CRLSet revocation revelations, an horrific appeal decision in Oracle v. Google, the forthcoming. Rather, they are intended to be used only by certain authorized individuals.


Use the alternate transfer sources or not. If views are specified this defaults to no otherwise it defaults to yes (for BIND 8 compatibility).

So the port number, which is a 16-bit value, so it can have any value - actually port 0 is sort of reserved. So it can have any value from 1 up to 65535. And by convention the first 1K ports, the first 1023, since we're not counting zero, or it'd be 1024, the first 1023 ports are reserved as service ports, or server ports. And again by convention, services typically set themselves up and listen for connections on those ports. And within systems like UNIX, the user processes that are running are unable to listen on those service ports. Only services that are registered with the proper permissions are able to set up shop and listen on those lower numbered, from ports 1 to port 1023, those are reserved for that. Other user processes are able to listen on higher numbered ports.


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Forwarding can also be configured on a per-domain basis, allowing for the global forwarding options to be overridden in a variety of ways. You can set particular domains to use different forwarders, or have a different forward only/first behavior, or not forward at all, see the section called “zone Statement Grammar”.

Accept expired signatures when verifying DNSSEC (check my blog) signatures. The default is no. Setting this option to "yes" leaves named vulnerable to replay attacks.


Mozilla continues to roll-out stronger policies to CAs, banning the issuance of "Man In The Middle - MITM" SSL certificates that allow an enterprise to intercept communication that is supposed to benefit from "end to end" encryption from web browser to. I got the opportunity to configure an IDN ccTLD. Entropy is needed for cryptographic operations such as TKEY transactions, dynamic update of signed zones, and generation of. As a result, a malicious user that has access to a jailed system is able to abuse shared memory by injecting malicious content in. Bob, a system administrator at TPNQM SA, found that they were victims of DNS Cache Poisoning.

We have been actively working with customers through our customer support teams, third-party hosters, and partner network to help them secure their environments and respond to associated threats from the recent Exchange Server on-premises attacks. Based on these engagements we realized that there was a need for a simple, easy to use, automated solution that would meet the needs of customers using both current and out-of-support versions of on-premises Exchange Server.


And yes, Windows is the one that's beep beep. They run it in the corner, yeah.

Quasar is my secondary DNS server. Apply a patch from the vendor A number of vendors have released patches to implement source port randomization in the nameserver. Cryptographic algorithm used to generate the zone's keys. The configuration policy can be based on available system resources and needs at a given time. Therefore, passwords need to be changed periodically.


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Steve: We learned this week some specific details of something we probably always suspected, which is it really does matter which VPN provider one chooses. There's a site, VPNmentor, which obtains its revenue from affiliate links to well-known and upstanding VPN providers. One of them is a current sponsor on the TWiT network. Recently, the user connection and activity logs of seven, on the surface apparently different, free VPN providers who all boasted about their "zero logging" services, were discovered on the Internet. That is, yes, the connection and activity logs of seven VPN providers that don't log were discovered on the Internet, in the cloud, on an Elasticsearch database instance.

And to kind of give us a sense for the reality of the world of counterfeiting, they said in their introduction: "Producing counterfeit products is, and always has been, a great business if you don't mind being on the wrong side of the law. There's no need to invest" in all that costly and, you know, well, they didn't say, I shouldn't editorialize. Reading just what they wrote: "There's no need to invest in a costly R&D process, and no need to select the best performing and looking materials. The only criterion is the cost of manufacture.


Steve: Yeah, well, what we're seeing is, and this has all sort of been an ongoing theme for us, we often note that older software just has less problems because it's had more time to get pounded on. And so Microsoft is doing new things, introducing new code in their newer versions of IE, and some of it is going to have problems. But they're not messing with IE6 anymore, so it's sort of stabilized.

The real parent servers for these zones should disable all empty zone under the parent zone they serve. For the real root servers, this is all built in empty zones. This will enable them to return referrals to deeper in the tree.


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Order of insertion is signficant. If more than one element in an ACL is found to match a given IP address or prefix, preference will be given to the one that came first in the ACL definition. Because of this first-match behavior, an element that defines a subset of another element in the list should come before the broader element, regardless of whether either is negated.

Transfer-source determines which local address will be bound to IPv4 TCP connections used to fetch zones transferred inbound by the server. It also determines the source IPv4 address, and optionally the UDP port, used for the refresh queries and forwarded dynamic updates. If not set, it defaults to a system controlled value which will usually be the address of the interface "closest to" the remote end. This address must appear in the remote end's allow-transfer option for the zone being transferred, if one is specified. This statement sets the transfer-source for all zones, but can be overridden on a per-view or per-zone basis by including a transfer-source statement within the view or zone block in the configuration file.


The script will attempt to create a log/ directory. If your webserver doesn’t have permission to do this, you would need to do it manually and give the webserver write permission.

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SRG-OS-000069-GPOS-00037 CCE-80653-9 Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters. Harden-dnssec-stripped: Require DNSSEC data for trust-anchored zones, if such data is absent, the zone becomes bogus. A trust anchor is a public key that is configured as the entry point for a chain of. This talk aims to shine light on the core concerns of entropy creation and entropy utilization. SSH is useful, easy to use and so much more secure than the archaic telnet/rlogin/rsh, that no UNIX/Linux system should be installed without it. Ideally all OS vendors would follow the example of OpenBSD.

The sortlist statement (see below) takes an address_match_list and interprets it even more specifically than the topology statement does (the section called “Topology”). Each top level statement in the sortlist must itself be an explicit address_match_list with one or two elements. The first element (which may be an IP address, an IP prefix, an ACL name or a nested address_match_list) of each top level list is checked against the source address of the query until a match is found.


This option was used in BIND 8 to allow a domain name to have multiple CNAME records in violation of the DNS standards. BIND 9/2 onwards always strictly enforces the CNAME rules both in master files and dynamic updates.

Where this comes down to is — is it alright for DNS to require more resources? Like I wrote earlier, we’ve already decided it’s OK for it to. And frankly, no matter how much we shove into DNS, we’re never getting into the traffic levels that any other interesting service online is touching.


The first counterfeit contained add-on circuitry which exploited a race condition in the boot ROM code to bypass its software verification. It did this by intercepting EEPROM control signals, replacing certain bytes in the image being loaded to modify the software's behavior on the fly. It appears the processor's printed circuit board in this unit was an exact copy of Cisco's without modification. So they sort of grafted it. And actually it's on the underside of the PCB so you don't see it unless you take the whole thing apart and look at the bottom side, where you would say, hey, what's that little turtle, black turtle with the wires all over the place?

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When both of these options are set to yes (the default) and a query is being answered from authoritative data (a zone configured into the server), the additional data section of the reply will be filled in using data from other authoritative zones and from the cache. In some situations this is undesirable, such as when there is concern over the correctness of the cache, or in servers where slave zones may be added and modified by untrusted third parties. Also, avoiding the search for this additional data will speed up server operations at the possible expense of additional queries to resolve what would otherwise be provided in the additional section.

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These parts are protected by smartcards. Link to download here. This number is encoded using a 16 bit value, which is insufficient for effectively protecting the transaction. You could turn this off if you are sometimes behind an. In the past it occurred that the entropy of the random number generator was not high enough.


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The pid-file is used by programs that want to send signals to the running name server. Specifying pid-file none disables the use of a PID file — no file will be written and any existing one will be removed. Note that none is a keyword, not a filename, and therefore is not enclosed in double quotes.

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We're currently tracking down an obscure but reproducible behavior that only appears to affect some HP desktops with their BIOS with a particular setting, but it does happen to be the default. So as soon as the podcast is finished this afternoon, I'll be returning to that. We've got a terrific group of very patient testers, and we're having a great time nailing down the operation of this code, which will be incorporated into the next version of SpinRite.


Second part of my DNS setup notes, this time about DNSSEC. Dnssec-keygen -a RSASHA1 -b -n ZONE [HOST] But its not responding, i waited around 30 minutes but there is no result Operating system is RHEL6 on VirtualBox Thanks & Regards Vishesh Kumar. Internet-Draft Security Considerations Guidelines they are typically low entropy. If pdns-distributes-queries is set, an additional thread is started, assigned the id 0, and is the only one listening on client sockets and accepting queries, distributing them to the other worker threads afterwards. Debian Jessie supports "inline signing" of the zones, meaning that the setup is much easier than in the tutorials.

Unfortunately, within a single day, businesses worldwide had to face such a reality. Their 3-year long digital transformation strategy was forced to become a 3-week sprint during which offices were abandoned, and people started working from home.


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The domain appended to the names of all shared keys generated with TKEY. When a client requests a TKEY exchange, it may or may not specify the desired name for the key. If present, the name of the shared key will will be client specified part + tkey-domain. Otherwise, the name of the shared key will be random hex digits + tkey-domain.

A unix control channel is a UNIX domain socket listening at the specified path in the file system. Access to the socket is specified by the perm, owner and group clauses. Note on some platforms (SunOS and Solaris) the permissions (perm) are applied to the parent directory as the permissions on the socket itself are ignored.


Moreover, the DNS is becoming poisoned, and it’s not the gmail.com page which is exposed but a scam page determined by the criminal, in order, for example, to reclaim the email box accesses. Thus the users accessing the correct domain name will not see that the website they’re entering is not the right one but a scam one.

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The view statement binds this instance of a lightweight resolver daemon to a view in the DNS namespace, so that the response will be constructed in the same manner as a normal DNS query matching this view. If this statement is omitted, the default view is used, and if there is no default view, an error is triggered.


Preventing session hijacking can daunting, particularly given the number of methods by which it can be accomplished. The principle of defense–in–depth applies heavily to preventing this sort of attack.

DNS records on winsrv1 using a GUI. Note the various record types (the name servers in particular).


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Given the dynamic state of data systems and technologies, securing corporate resources can be quite complex. The notation is: attribute: value. Many security experts and cryptographers believe SSH users may be lulled into a false sense of security, because of some outstanding security issues. It also has active programs for encouraging and assisting industry and science to. Update 3: Just to make it clear – To break IKE PSKs, you first need to break the initial DiffieHellman exchange, which is usually MODP1024 or MODP1536 in the bad cases (and MODP2048+ in the good cases).

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Steve: So we're seeing the same pattern that has been noted by a number of other security watchers, and that is that Microsoft is alternating the size of their security patches from large to small and large to small, month after month. Last month we had an almost-not-worth-mentioning little tiny patch month.


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Specify the type of database to be used for storing the zone data. The string following the database keyword is interpreted as a list of whitespace-delimited words. The first word identifies the database type, and any subsequent words are passed as arguments to the database to be interpreted in a way specific to the database type.

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And then the destination port is like the destination IP. The destination IP contained in the outer IP wrapper, in the IP header, that gets us to the machine. Then, if the protocol is UDP, that says, oh, UDP packets contain port numbers.


Windows ASLR does not work this way. Instead, each DLL or EXE image gets assigned a random load address by the kernel the first time it is used, and as additional instances of the DLL or EXE are loaded, they receive the same load address. If all instances of an image are unloaded and that image is subsequently loaded again, the image may or may not receive the same base address; see Fact 4. Only rebooting can guarantee fresh base addresses for all images systemwide.

For those that can't patch immediately, disallowing larger DNS packets will provide temporary protection. Limiting response sizes of DNS packets to 512 bytes will prevent the issue from occuring, though this will break DNSSEC since this typically uses larger packets to communicate data.


The provide-ixfr clause determines whether the local server, acting as master, will respond with an incremental zone transfer when the given remote server, a slave, requests it. If set to yes, incremental transfer will be provided whenever possible. If set to no, all transfers to the remote server will be non-incremental. If not set, the value of the provide-ixfr option in the view or global options block is used as a default.

The owner name is often implicit, rather than forming an integral part of the RR. For example, many name servers internally form tree or hash structures for the name space, and chain RRs off nodes. The remaining RR parts are the fixed header (type, class, TTL) which is consistent for all RRs, and a variable part (RDATA) that fits the needs of the resource being described.


One of the biggest limitations and annoyances of ASLR is that seemingly innocuous features such as a debug log message or stack trace that leak a pointer in the image become security bugs. If the attacker has a copy of the same program or DLL and can trigger it to produce the same leak, they can calculate the difference between the ASLR and pre-ASLR pointer to determine the ASLR offset. Then, the attacker can apply that offset to every pointer in their attack payload in order to overcome ASLR. Defenders should train software developers about pointer disclosure vulnerabilities so that they realize the gravity of this issue, and also regularly assess software for these vulnerabilities as part of the software development lifecycle.

The PS that decides to serve the request acknowledges the delegation by resending the service advertisement. The distinction between advertisements originating from the SSP and cached advertisements from the PS is done using the Authoritative Answer (AA) bit. The purpose of the retransmission is twofold: (1) the SSP knows that someone has handled its request and can start its sleep cycle; and (2) other PSs know that they need not process that advertisement. The protocol can be further optimized by retransmitting only the first SRV RR in order avoid unnecessary distribution of large (fragmented) messages. The SRV RR is unique to the SSP and can be undoubtedly interpreted by the SSP and by other PSs.


TTL (Time to Live)—How long in seconds the record can be cached. Many ISPs use 2 or even 3 days for this field (172,800 or 259,000). If no value is entered, the default can be short (as little as 1 hour).

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Transfers is used to limit the number of concurrent inbound zone transfers from the specified server. If no transfers clause is specified, the limit is set according to the transfers-per-ns option.


Well, the designers realized, if you had big network of these routers, it was possible for a router to make a mistake if its routing table weren't configured correctly, so that a packet might bounce in the wrong direction, that is, it might be sent out the wrong interface. And it was possible that it could come back around to an earlier router in just a network of interconnected links.